One to best dentary fragment having P/step 3-M/step 3 (Friend 59); one <a href=""></a> correct dentary fragment which have Meters/2-M/step three (Buddy 61)

Differential diagnosis. Oxacron differs from Caintheriinae by visibility out-of subtriangular higher molars without crested appearances, a shorter postparacristula, thin premolars, a weaker postprotoconulid, a great biradiculate P/step 1, diastemata between P/2-P/3 and you may P1/-P2/, and you will an excellent protocone much more mesial versus paracone towards the P4/. They differs and off Plesiomeryx and you can Caenomeryx varieties by the quicker size, an inferior protocone toward P3/, and also the lack of an excellent protocone to the P2/. They is different from Cainotherium from the reduced size, its lack of cingula/ids with the premolars, a good triangular P3/, additionally the presence from an area involving the entoconid and also the mesoconid on all the way down molars. Oxacron is recognized regarding the most other Oxacroninae Paroxacron of the quicker premolars, an excellent P1/, P/1, and you will P/2 caniniforms, a smaller mesial lobe on P3/, an effective triangular P4/, together with a smaller paraconule towards upper molars. Fundamentally, Oxacron differs from Palembertina gen. the fall of. by many people characters (pick significantly more than).

Thing of Palembert. Palembert is found in the new Quercy phosphorites urban area (The west off France) close to the town off Caylus (Tarn-et-Garonne, France).


Malfunction. Oxacron courtoisii from Palembert is only documented because of the the straight down dentition having a few fragmentary dentaries. With respect to the alveola development away from Friend 59 (Figure 2A-B), this new P/step one are biradiculate. Quick diastemata occur anywhere between P/1-P/dos and you can P/2-P/step three. P/3 and you will P/cuatro is actually small. The P/3 presents a strong protoconid and you can a short distal cristid lingually curved. The fresh P/cuatro reveals a great protoconid a lot more mesial compared to metaconid. Their talonid basin is large with a tiny postprotoconulid and you can a brief hypoconid. The new entoconid is very weakened.

The reduced molars (Buddy 59, Friend 61; Profile 2A-D) establish the brand new “Caintotherium bundle” that have around three highest lingual cuspids: a good mesial metaconid, a medial metaconulid, and an excellent distal entoconid. The newest paraconid try small. The newest metaconulid is actually highest, from the fresh metaconid and separated by the a lengthy mediocristid. The fresh talonid is actually bucco-lingually constricted having a big centroconulid and a beneficial postendocentroconulid longer distolingually. This new entoconid try looped and a lot more distal compared to hypoconid. New Yards/step 3 gifts a giant hypoconulid instead a posthypocristulid. The latest mesial cingulid is pretty high.

Brand new mandible (Pal 59) shows a couple mental foramina on the lateral ramus, you to definitely underneath the mesial element of P/dos plus one underneath the mesial part of P/cuatro (Figure 2B). The fresh lateral ramus try gracile and you will superficial, and its height is pretty ongoing involving the premolar area and you can the final molar. The fresh angular apophysis, not managed, was mesially delimited by the a strong incisura vasorum (Buddy 59, Buddy 60; Shape 2B, 2D).

Phylogenetic Studies

The brand new cladistic study retained just one parsimonious forest (size = 183, Texture Index [CI] = 0.forty eight, Preservation Index [RI] = 0.73, CI with just parsimony-instructional characters = 0.45; Figure cuatro), showing a properly-structured signal and you may seemingly weakened homoplasy. The fresh topology is congruent with this regarding Weppe mais aussi al. (2020), new taxon Palembertina deplasi nov. gen. the fall of. sp. wanting its set within the monophyletic Cainotheriidae, since the aunt taxon to the clade C (Oxacroninae, Cainotheriinae). Aforementioned gathers two subfamilies: Oxacroninae, which have Oxacron and you can Paroxacron; and you can Cainotheriinae, which have Plesiomeryx, Caenomeryx, and you can Cainotherium.

The fresh new monophyly away from Cainotheriidae, plus Palembertina gen. biguous synapomorphies (Bremer index [BI] = 4). He or she is described as brand new exposure on their higher molars, of: an enormous parastyle the same as other types (8 step 1 ; RI = 0.67), a great distostyle (11 step one ; RI = 0.89), a quite strong dilambdodonty (twenty two step 1 ; RI = 0.88), a beneficial postparacristula (30 step one ; RI = 0.86), and you will deficiencies in preprotocrista and you may paraconule junction (17 0 ; RI = 0.67); to their all the way down molars, it introduce: a huge (thirty-six step 1 ; RI = step 1.000) and you will individualized metaconulid (37 step 1 ; RI = step one.00), a beneficial neotrigonid (51 step 1 ; RI = 1.00), and lack of hypoconulid on the Yards/step one and you can Yards/dos (41 0 ; RI = 0.75). Inside Cainotheriidae, Palembertina gen. the fall of. is the basic offshoot and you can appears as the fresh aunt taxon to the clade C (Oxacroninae, Cainotheriinae). It reveals about three autapomorphies: a primary diastema ranging from P/2-P/3 (six step one ; RI = 0.33), including an effective looped mesostyle (10 0 ; RI = 0.50) and you may a massive distostyle (12 step 1 ) to your top molars. The fresh new clade C (BI = 2) is actually backed by half dozen non-unclear synapomorphies, with the top molars: a beneficial distal protocone (13 2 ; RI = 0.94), a small cingulum related brand new protocone (20 step one ; RI = 0.58), and you may a lengthy postprotocrista (twenty-eight step 1 ; RI = 0.50); toward all the way down molars: an incredibly distal entoconid (43 dos ; RI = 1.00), and also the lack of a beneficial basin-formed hypoconulid (40 0 ; RI = 0.75) and of posthypocristulid (55 0 ; RI = 0.67) on the Yards/3. Inside clade C, Oxacroninae (BI=1) was supported by an effective protocone significantly more mesial versus paracone on P4/ (62 step one ; RI = 0.50) and you can a beneficial biradiculate P/step one (77 step 1 ; RI = step one.00), and Cainotheriinae (BI = 1) are backed by a beneficial postparacristula buccally much time signing up for new preprotocrista towards top molars (32 1 ; RI = step one.00) and a giant postprotoconulid for the all the way down premolars (76 step 1 ; RI = step one.00).